What Constitutes a "Hazard"
- Title (English):
- What Constitutes a "Hazard"
- International Workers’ Order (IWO) and Jewish People's Fraternal Order (JPFO)
- Cold War
- Zaltsman, R. (Reʾuven) (Rubin Saltzman, Reuben Zaltzman)
- International Workers Order
- New York, New York, United States
- ID Number:
- File Name:
- Address (creator):
- 80 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York
- Bx 29, ff1
- Work Type:
- organization files
political ideologies and attitudes
courts (judicial bodies)
- Anti-Ordn Campaign
IWO JPFO Organizational History
Cold War- Red Scare
IWO Legal Issues- First Amendment, Fifth Amendment
Trials and Testimony
Fraternal Orders- Lodges, Activities
Communist Party, USA
- 28 pages. Edited draft of pamphlet. Written in English, presumably with the help of the I.W.O.'s legal team, it is formulated in response to the decision dissolving the I.W.O. in New York State on the grounds that it poses a hazard. This document rehearses the I.W.O.'s arguments as to why New York State, and Judge Greenberg erred in making that determination and discusses the issues of Communist affiliation and whether the I.W.O's leadership was prepared to resign. P. 10 has a handwritten note in Yiddish, as well as contains some language in English criticizing the Workmen's Circle for being anti-Soviet. Notes IWO membership as 162,000.
- The following quote describing Judge Greenberg's legal decision is offered here to guide the reader in navigating legal terrain. The quote has been taken from the American Jewish Commitee and the Anti-Defamation League "Joint Memorandum on Recent Decision Dissolving the I.W.O. in New York State" that was written on July 25, 1951. "On June 25, 1951 Justice Henry Clay Greenberg of the New York Supreme Court ordered the dissolution and liquidation of the International Workers Order on the basis of a petition brought by the State Department of Insurance. In his 49-page decision, Justice Greenberg sustained the view of the State Superintendent of Insurance that the I.W.O. had violated the provisions of its Charter, and was conducting an insurance operation that is 'financially hazardous to its policyholders, to its creditors, and to the public'." (1)
The Jewish People’s Fraternal Order was the largest ‘national’ section of the International Workers Order (IWO) which focused on cultural awareness and celebration, mutual support especially in health insurance coverage, and anti-fascist activities. The IWO also gave particular emphasis to supporting the rights and interests of African Americans. Documents include language and representations which comprise the historical record and should not be interpreted to mean that Cornell University or its staff endorse or approve of negative representations or stereotypes presented.
- Cite As:
- International Workers Order (IWO) Records #5276. Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Cornell University Library.
- Kheel Center for Labor-Management Documentation and Archives, Martin P. Catherwood Library, Cornell University
- Archival Collection:
- International Workers Order (IWO) Records, 1915-2002 (KCL05276)
- The copyright status and copyright owners of most of the images in the International Workers Order (IWO) Records Collection (Kheel Center #5276) are unknown. This material was digitized from physical holdings by Cornell University Library in 2016, with funding from an Arts and Sciences Grant to Jonathan Boyarin. Documents include language and representations which comprise the historical record and should not be interpreted to mean that Cornell University or its staff endorse or approve of negative representations or stereotypes presented. Cornell is providing access to the materials as a digital aggregate under an assertion of fair use for non-commercial educational use. The written permission of any copyright and other rights holders is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use that extends beyond what is authorized by fair use and other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. Cornell would like to learn more about items in the collection and to hear from individuals or institutions that have any additional information as to rights holders. Please contact the Kheel Center at email@example.com